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Predicting is when readers use information from texts, their own experiences and their own knowledge to anticipate what might happen when reading, viewing or listening to a text. This can occur before, during and after reading a text.


Making predictions engages students in a text by asking them to think about what they think might occur or what knowledge or information they will discover. The inferences students make whilst predicting encourages students to make connections between their prior knowledge and experiences and new information by activating their schema. Using the text, students then refine, revise and verify their thinking by confirming or rejecting the predictions they made.


Before, During and After chart

Teachers and students list their predictions and code their justificiation before, during and after reading a text. As students read, view or listen to the text they confirm or reject their predictions.















































Directed Reading-Thinking Activity

Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) is a teaching strategy that guides students in making predictions about a text and then reading to confirm or refute their predictions. This strategy encourages students to be active and thoughtful readers, enhancing their comprehension.

The following steps outline the DR-TA process.

  1. Introduction
    • What do you already know about this subject?
  2. Predict
    • Looking at the title, what do you think the story is about? Why?
    • Looking at the pictures, what do you think the story will be about? Why?
  3. Prove or Modify Predictions

After reading each section, answer the following:

    • What do you think now?
    • Can you prove your predictions, or do you need to modify them?
    • What do you think will happen next? Why?
  1. Reflect

After reading the entire selection, answer the following:

    • What did you find in the text to prove your predictions?
    • What did you find in the text that caused you to modify your predictions?

Anticipation Guide

An anticipation guide is a comprehension strategy that is used before reading to activate students' prior knowledge and build curiosity about a new topic. Before reading, students listen to or read several statements about key concepts presented in the text; they're often structured as a series of statements with which the students can choose to agree or disagree. Anticipation guides stimulate students' interest in a topic and set a purpose for reading.

  1. Construct the anticipation guide. Construction of the anticipation guide should be as simple as possible for younger students. Write four to six statements about key ideas in the text; some true and some false. Include columns following each statement, which can be left blank or can be labelled Yes, or No (Maybe can also be used).

NOTE: Teachers may wish to create an additional column for revisiting the guide after the material has been read.

  1. Model the process. Introduce the text or reading material and share the guide with the students. Model the process of responding to the statements and marking the columns.
  2. Read each of the statements and ask the students if they agree or disagree with it. Provide the opportunity for discussion. The emphasis is not on right answers but to share what they know and to make predictions.
  3. Read the text aloud or have students read the selection individually. If reading aloud, teachers should read slowly and stop at places in the text that correspond to each of the statements.
  4. Bring closure to the reading by revisiting each of the statements.

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